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  A physician specialising in the treatment of blood diseases. Hematologists may specialise further, for example, in treating bleeding disorders such as hemophilia, or in treating hematological malignacies such as lymphoma and leukemia (oncohematology).

Blood diseases affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, the mechanism of coagulation, etc. The study of etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of blood diseases is the domain of hematology and hemotherapy. Medical specialists in this domain are called hematologists.

Haemophilia or hemophilia is the name of any of several hereditary genetic illnesses that impair the body's ability to control bleeding. Genetic deficiencies (or, very rarely, an autoimmune disorder) cause lowered plasma clotting factor activity so as to compromise blood-clotting; when a blood vessel is injured, a scab will not form and the vessel can continue to bleed excessively for a very long period of time. The bleeding can be external, if the skin is broken by a scrape, cut or abrasion, or it can be internal, into muscles, joints or hollow organs. It might therefore presents visibly as skin bruises, or subtlely as melena, hematuria, or bleeding in the brain.
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